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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

क्षत्रिय पुं।




मूर्धाभिषिक्तो राजन्यो बाहुजः क्षत्रियो विराट्. राजा राट्पार्थिवक्ष्माभृन्नृपभूपमहीक्षितः॥

पत्नी : क्षत्रियपत्नी

 : राजा

पदार्थ-विभागः : समूहः, द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्यः

Apteसंपादित करें

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

क्षत्रियः [kṣatriyḥ], [क्षत्रे राष्ट्रे साधु तस्यापत्यं जातौ वा घः Tv.]

A member of the military or second caste; धर्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयो$न्यत् क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते Bg.2.31. ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियो वैश्यस्त्रयो वर्णा द्विजातयः Ms.1.4. The Mahābhārata (Śāntiparvan) says: ब्राह्मणानां क्षतत्राणात्ततः क्षत्रिय उच्यते ।

A kind of horse; क्षत्रिया वह्निसंभवाः Śālihotra, Appendix II,14. -यम् The rank or power of the Kṣatriya class; Rv.4.12.3. -Comp. -धर्मः See क्षत्रधमः; Ms.1. 81. -हनः (-णः) an epithet of Paraśurāma; Mb.5. 178.89.

Monier-Williamsसंपादित करें

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

क्षत्रिय mfn. ( Pa1n2. 4-1 , 38 ; g. श्रेण्यादि)governing , endowed with sovereignty RV. AV. iv , 22 , 1 VS. TBr. ii

क्षत्रिय m. a member of the military or reigning order (which in later times constituted the second caste) AV. S3Br. AitBr. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. etc.

क्षत्रिय m. ( ifc. f( आ). ) MBh.

क्षत्रिय m. N. of a दश-पूर्विन्Jain.

क्षत्रिय m. a red horse Gal.

क्षत्रिय m. N. of a people VarBr2S. xiv , 28

क्षत्रिय m. N. of दुर्गाHariv. 3290

क्षत्रिय n. the power or rank of the sovereign RV. iv , 12 , 3 ; v , 69 , 1 ; vii , 104 , 13 AV. vi , 76 , 3.

Purana indexसंपादित करें

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

(I)--the fourth Manu. वा. २६. ३५. [page१-487+ ४६]
(II)--created out of the breast of ब्रह्मा; फलकम्:F1:  Br. II. 5. १०८; वा. ३०. ८३, २३२; ४५. ११७; ५४. १११; ५७. ५२; १००. २४६; १०१. 5, ३५२. १०४. १३; Vi. I. 6. 6.फलकम्:/F the ऐन्द्रस्थानम्. फलकम्:F2:  Vi. I. 6. ३४.फलकम्:/F Distinctive traits; फलकम्:F: a)भा. VII. ११. १४-15, १७ and २२.फलकम्:/F protection and other duties; फलकम्:F: b)X. २४. २०; Vi. III. 8. २६-29.फलकम्:/F definition of; फलकम्:F3:  भा. XI. १७. १७.फलकम्:/F destroyed by Kalki. फलकम्:F4:  भा. X. ४०. २२.फलकम्:/F and by महा- padmananda. फलकम्:F5:  Ib. XII. 1. 8.फलकम्:/F seven clans distinguished; become Brahma- nas by दान, यज्ञ and tapas. फलकम्:F6:  Br. II. २९१. ५५; III. १०. ८९; २८. ५६; ६३. १४१; ६६. ७७; ७१. २३१.फलकम्:/F Their पितृस् are हविष्मन्तस्; observe pollution for १२ days for father's death; pray to Devi; फलकम्:F7:  M. १३. ६३; १५. १७; १८. 2.फलकम्:/F can take to वैश्यकर्म and not to शूद्रकर्म. फलकम्:F8:  Vi. III. 8. ३९.फलकम्:/F

Purana Encyclopediaसंपादित करें

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

KṢATRIYA : See under Cāturvarṇya.

*11th word in left half of page 433 (+offset) in original book.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjectsसंपादित करें

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

Kṣatriya.--As the origin of caste, the relation of the castes, intermarriage, and cognate matters may most conveniently be discussed under Varṇa, this article will be confined to determining, as far as possible, the real character of the class called Kṣatriyas, or collectively Kṣatra.

The evidence of the Jātakas[१] points to the word Khattiya denoting the members of the old Āryan nobility who had led the tribes to conquest, as well as those families of the aborigines who had managed to maintain their princely status in spite of the conquest. In the epic[२] also the term Kṣatriya seems to include these persons, but it has probably a wider signification than Khattiya, and would cover all the royal military vassals and feudal chiefs, expressing, in fact, pretty much the same as the barones of early English history. Neither in the Jātakas[३] nor in the epic[४] is the term co-extensive with all warriors; the army contains many besides the Kṣatriyas, who are the leaders or officers, rather than the rank and file.

In the later Saṃhitās[५] and the Brāhmaṇas[६] the Kṣatriya stands as a definite member of the social body, distinct from the priest, the subject people, and the slaves, Brāhmaṇa, Vaiśya, and Śūdra. It is significant that Rājanya is a variant to Kṣatriya, and an earlier one. Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the Kṣatriya and Rājanya are both of similar origin, being princely or connected with royalty. Moreover, the early use of Kṣatriya in the Rigveda[७] is exclusively connected with royal authority or divine authority.

It is impossible to say exactly what persons would be included in the term Kṣatriya. That it covered the royal house and the various branches of the royal family may be regarded as certain. It, no doubt, also included the nobles and their families: this would explain the occasional opposition of Rājanya and Kṣatriya, as in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa,[८] where a Rājanya asks a Kṣatriya for a place for sacrifice (deva-yajana). Thus, when strictly applied, Kṣatriya would have a wider denotation than Rājanya. As a rule, however, the two expressions are identical, and both are used as evidence in what follows. That Kṣatriya ever included the mere fighting man has not been proved: in the Rigveda[९] and later[१०] others than Kṣatriyas regularly fought; but possibly if the nobles had retinues as the kings had, Kṣatriya would embrace those retainers who had military functions. The term did not apply to all members of the royal entourage; for example, the Grāmaṇī was usually a Vaiśya.

The connexion of the Kṣatriyas with the Brahmins was very close. The prosperity of the two is repeatedly asserted[११] to be indissolubly associated, especially in the relation of king (Rājan) and domestic priest (Purohita). Sometimes there was feud between Kṣatriya and Brahmin.[१२] His management of the sacrifice then gave the Brahmin power to ruin the Kṣatriya by embroiling him with the people[१३] or with other Kṣatriyas.[१४]

Towards the common people, on the other hand, the Kṣatriya stood in a relation of well-nigh unquestioned superiority.[१५] There are, however, references to occasional feuds between the people and the nobles,[१६] in which no doubt the inferior numbers of the latter were compensated by their superior arms and prowess. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa[१७] the Vaiśya is described as tributary to another (anyasya bali-kṛt), to be devoured by another (anyasyādya), and to be oppressed at will (yathākāma-jyeya). Probably these epithets apply most strictly to the relation of the king and his people, but the passage shows that the people were greatly at the mercy of the nobles. No doubt the king granted to them the right, which may have been hereditary, to be supported by the common people, whose feudal superiors they thus became. In return for these privileges the Kṣatriyas had probably duties of protection to perform, as well as some judicial functions, to judge from an obscure passage of the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā.[१८]

The main duty of the Kṣatriya in the small states[१९] of the Vedic period was readiness for war. The bow is thus his special attribute,[२०] just as the goad is that of the agriculturist; for the bow is the main weapon of the Veda. Whether the Kṣatriyas paid much attention to mental occupations is uncertain. In the latest stratum of the Brāhmaṇa literature there are references to learned princes like Janaka of Videha, who is said to have become a Brahmin (brahmā), apparently in the sense that he had the full knowledge which a Brahmin possessed.[२१] Other learned Kṣatriyas of this period were Pravāhaṇa Jaivali,[२२] Aśvapati Kaikeya,[२३] and Ajātaśatru.[२४] Garbe,[२५] Grierson,[२६] and others believe they are justified in holding the view that the Ksatriyas developed a special philosophy of their own as opposed to Brahminism, which appears later as Bhakti, or Faith. On the other hand, there is clear evidence[२७] that the opinion of Ksatriyas on such topics were held in little respect, and it must be remembered that to attribute wisdom to a king was a delicate and effective piece of flattery. There are earlier references to royal sages (rājanyarṣi),[२८] but it is very doubtful if much stress can be laid on them, and none can be laid on the later tradition of Sāyaṇa.[२९] Again, the Nirukta[३०] gives a tradition relating how Devāpi, a king's son, became the Purohita of his younger brother Śaṃtanu; but it is very doubtful if the story can really be traced with Sieg[३१] in the Rigveda[३२] itself. In any case, the stories refer only to a few selected Kṣatriyas of high rank, while there is no evidence that the average Kṣatriya was concerned with intellectual pursuits. Nor is there any reference to Kṣatriyas engaging in agriculture or in trade or commerce. It may be assumed that the duties of administration and war were adequate to absorb his attention. On the other hand, we do hear of a Rājanya as a lute player and singer at the Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice.[३३]

Of the training and education of a Kṣatriya we have no record; presumably, as in fact if not in theory later on, he was mainly instructed in the art of war, the science of the bow, and the rudimentary administrative functions which would devolve on him. At this early state of the development of the nobility which appears to be represented in the Rigveda, it was probably not unusual or impossible for a Vaiśya to become a Kṣatriya; at least, this assumption best explains the phrase[३४] ‘claiming falsely a Kṣatriya's rank’ (kṣatriyaṃ mithuyā dhārayantam).

The king and the Kṣatriyas must have stood in a particularly close relation. The former being the Kṣatriya par excellence, it is to him rather than to the ordinary Kṣatriya that we must refer passages like that in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,[३५] where it is said that the Kṣatriya, with the consent of the clansmen, gives a settlement to a man: clearly a parallel to the rule found among many peoples that the chief, but only with the consent of the people, can make a grant of unoccupied land. In the same Brāhmaṇa[३६] it is said that a Kṣatriya consecrates a Kṣatriya, a clear reference, as the commentator explains, to the practice of the old king consecrating the prince (kumāra) who is to succeed him; and again,[३७] the Kṣatriya and the Purohita are regarded as alone complete in contrast with other people, the parallel with the Purohita here suggesting that the Kṣatriya par excellence is meant. On the other hand, the king is sometimes contrasted with the Rājanya.[३८]

The Sūtra literature contains elaborate rules[३९] for the educa- tion and occupations of Kṣatriyas, but their contents cannot always be traced in the Brāhmaṇa literature, and their value is questionable.

  1. See Fick, Die sociale Gliederung im nordo7stlichen Indien zu Buddhas Zoit, 59 et seq.;
    Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha, 1, 95 et seq.;
    Buddhist India,
    52 et seq.
  2. Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 73 et seq.
  3. Fick, op. cit., 52, n. 2.
  4. Hopkins, op. cit., 184 et seq., 190.
  5. Av. vi. 76, 3. 4;
    xii. 5, 5. 44. 46, etc.;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 5, etc. See Varṇa and Rājanya.
  6. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 24, etc.;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 3, 2, 15;
    iv. 1, 4, 5. 6, etc. See Varṇa.
  7. iv. 12, 3;
    42, 1;
    v. 69, 1;
    vii. 64, 2;
    viii. 25, 8;
    56, 1;
    x. 109, 3. Cf. Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, iv. 19;
    x. 4;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 4, 7, 7.
  8. vii. 20. Cf. Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xxiv. 18, 2;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xx. 1.
  9. In the following passages there is reference to the people (viś) fighting: i. 69, 3;
    126, 5 (cf., however, Pischel, Vedische Studien, 2, 121);
    iv. 24, 4;
    vi. 26, 1;
    vii. 79, 2;
    viii. 18, 18;
    96, 15;
    probably also vii. 33, 6, where the Tṛtsūnāṃ viśaḥ means ‘the subjects of the Tṛtsu princes,’ as Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2, 136, thinks. In vi. 41, 5, on the other hand, the people and wars (pṛtanāsu) are contrasted, the normal rule of the common folk being peace.
  10. In Av. ix. 7, 9, the people are clearly designated as balam, or ‘force,’ a regular term later for an armed force. The later law books (e.g., Gautama, vii. 6;
    Vasiṣṭha, ii. 22) allow even Brahmins to maintain themselves by the occupation of Kṣatriyas in case of need. For the Epic, cf. Hopkins, op. cit., 94, 95;
    184 et seq.
  11. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, v. 1, 10, 3;
    Maitrayaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 2, 3;
    iii. 1, 9;
    2, 3;
    iv. 3, 9;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxix. 10;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, v. 27;
    vii. 21;
    xviii. 14;
    xix. 5;
    xxxviii. 14, etc.;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xi. 11, 9;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 22;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 2, 1, 7;
    iii. 5, 2, 11;
    6, 1, 17;
    vi. 6, 3, 14. The superiority of the Rājanya to all other castes is asserted in Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 5, 10, 1, etc. The superiority of the Brahmin to the Kṣatriya is sometimes asserted--e.g., in the Atharvaveda hymns, v. 18. 19;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 3, 8;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxi. 21;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 1, 9, 1;
    3, 7, 8. So the Rājasūya sacrifice of the king is inferior to the highest sacrifice (the Vājapeya) of the priest (ibid., v. 1, 1, 12), and though the Brahmin goes after the king, he is yet stronger than he (v. 4, 2, 7, and v. 4, 4, 15). Cf. Hopkins, op. cit., 76.
  12. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxviii. 5;
    Av. v. 18. 19.
  13. E.g., Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 2, 11, 2;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 6, 5;
    ii. 1, 9;
    iii. 3, 10;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxix. 8, etc.
  14. Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 3, 10, etc.
  15. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xvi. 4;
    xxi. 10;
    xxii. 9;
    xxix. 9. 10;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 33;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xi. 2, 7, 15. 16, etc.;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 4, 9. 10;
    6, 8, etc.
  16. Cf. note 13;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, v. 4, 6, 7;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 6, 7.
  17. vii. 29. Cf. Rājan.
  18. xxvii. 4 (tasmād rājanyenādhyakṣeṇa vaiśyaṃ ghnanti, ‘so with a Rājanya as a supervisor[?] they smite a Vaiśya’). It is not clear whether han here means ‘kill’ or ‘beat.’
  19. See Hopkins, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 30, n. 2.
  20. Av. xviii. 2, 60;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xviii. 9;
    xxxvii. 1;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 3, 5, 30;
    Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, vi. 1, 3. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 19, the list is longer--chariot, breastplate (Kavaca), bow and arrow (iṣu-dhanvan)--and in the prayer for the prosperity of the Kṣatriya (called, as usual in the older texts, Rājanya), at the Aśvamedha, the Rājanva is to be an archer and a good chariot-fighter;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 5, 18, 1;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 12, 6;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, Aśvamedha, v. 14;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxii. 2. So Indra is the god of the Kṣatriyas, Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 3, 1;
    iv. 5, 8, etc.
  21. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xi. 6, 2, 1.

    Cf. Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, iv. 1. See Max Müller, Ancient Sanskrit Litcrature, 421 et seq.;
    Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 12, 426 et seq. Similarly at the Dīkṣā a Kṣatriya becomes temporarily a Brahmin, Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 23.

    Cf. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 4, 1, 3.
  22. Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, vi. 1, 1;
    Chāndogya Upaniṣad, i. 8, 1;
    v. 3, 1;
    Muir, op. cit., 433-435;
    Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 117;
    Max Müller, Sacred Books of the East, 1, lxxv.
  23. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, x. 6, 1, 2 et seq.
  24. Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, ii. 1, 1;
    Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, iv. 1.
  25. Beiträge zur indischen Kulturgeschichte, 1 et seq. Cf. Deussen, Philosophy of the Upanishads, 17 et seq.;
    Winterniz, Geschichte der indischen Litteratur, 1, 199.
  26. Article ‘Bhakti’ in Encyclopœdia of Religion and Ethics;
    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society,
    1908, 843.
  27. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, viii. 1, 4, 10.

    Cf. Oldenberg. Buddha, 73, n. 1;
    Keith, Aitareya Āranyaka, 50, 257;
    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 868, 883, 1140-1142. Professor Eggeling concurs in the view that the Kṣatriya share in the religious movement was not substantially real.
  28. E.g., in Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, xii. 12, 6;
    but see on this Oldenberg. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 42, 235, n., and Varṇa.
  29. Cited in Muir, op. cit., 12, 265 et seq.
  30. ii. 10.
  31. Die Sagenstoffe des Ṛgveda, 91 et seq. See Devāpi.
  32. x. 98. The case of Viśvāmitra may also be cited;
    but his royal rank, which is attested by the mention of him as a Rājaputra in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 17, is at most merely a matter of descent, and is of very doubtful authenticity. See under Varṇa.
  33. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 4, 3, 5. This mention is proof of the existence of a class of Kṣatriya bards (as opposed to priestly reciters), from whose productions the Epic naturally grew up.

    Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 15, 258.
  34. vii. 104, 13. Cf. for a similarly false claim to be a Brahmin, x. 71, 8.
  35. vii. 1, 1, 8.
  36. xii. 8, 3, 19;
    Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 254, n. 1.
  37. Cf. Eggeling, ibid., 41, 259.
  38. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 4, 2, 17, and see Rājanya.
  39. See references in Bühler, Sacred Books of the East, 14, 395, 396.

    Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 212 et seq.;
    Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 231 et seq.;
    von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 151 et seq.;
    Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 4 et seq. (where practically every passage on the subject is cited or referred to);
    Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 98 et seq. (for the Epic parallels).
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